Louisiana doula protects BIPOC women from abuse through birth work and beyond

Having endured the trauma of a lost pregnancy at the hands of her obstetrician during her teenagehood, Angelica Rideaux vowed that she would work to protect BIPOC women from emotional and physical abuse.

In 2021, she enrolled in Community Birth Companion, a non-profit doula training program serving those in Southwest Louisiana. 

“During the training, I was loved on by women who looked like me, and had the same purpose of ending racial bias in maternal child health care,” Rideaux recalls.

She now serves as a doula for BIPOC families around Louisiana  with the ultimate goal of becoming a Certified Professional Midwife (CPM). Currently, there are only three Black CPMs in Louisiana, according to Rideaux. In 2021 Baby Catcher Birth Center, the state’s first Black-owned, CABC accredited free-standing birth center opened.  

Most recently, Rideaux was accepted as a member of the Power Coalition for Equity and Justice’s She Leads: Community Activist Fellowship 2023 cohort: a “network of women activists who are disrupting the current power structures and realizing change in their communities.”

Rideaux’s accomplishments go on. She earned one of the most recent Accessing the Milky Way scholarships to support her completion of the Lactation Counselor Training Course (LCTC)

Because Rideaux is a hands-on learner, she reports the online format of the LCTC challenging. Even so, Rideaux says she likes challenges. 

“So I am going to push past that,” she states. 

She says she has found the office hours helpful; they make the experience of online learning feel less isolating. 

Working her way through the course, Rideaux has been surprised by how many myths have been put to rest. Specifically, she says it was “mind-blowing” to learn that water consumption is not solely responsible for milk production. She plans to share the knowledge she continues to gain among her colleagues and the families she supports.    

Rideaux sees the LCTC as an important piece in making her future in midwifery more well-rounded, effective and supportive. 

As Rideaux continues on her journey to know more to better serve her community, she reminds us of some important concepts to reflect on as we move through our own work to improve maternal child health outcomes. 

First is that discomfort is necessary for change, and sitting in discomfort, having those difficult  conversations is part of bringing an end to racial inequity.

Secondly, creating healthy environments for women and children, especially those in BIPOC communities,  is not a trend. Rideaux comments that while she wants everyone to be culturally aware and competent, she hopes that the impetus comes from “hearts to get the situation resolved” rather than for “the dollars” or for “the accolades” or for an illusion of doing good.  

In Equity is more than a buzzword, the author writes: “Those committed to equity should understand that the harm of racism cannot simply be ‘undone’. The ramifications of colonization, enslavement and segregation penetrate almost every aspect of our society, including our education systems. Merely boosting representation is not an effective way to increase equity in predominantly white institutions.”  (Paytner, 2023)

It’s a reminder that improving maternal child health outcomes for the BIPOC community is part of a revolution, as Rideaux describes it. 

A lot of us are on the ground getting this work done, never receiving any kind of media coverage,” she begins. “We are soldiers in this war, and the goal is to get everybody on the same path for equity and justice. We  want everybody to feel like they are humans because that’s what we are first and foremost.”  

Learn about ending obstetric racism by visiting Birthing Cultural Rigor, founded by Dr. Karen A. Scott, MD, MPH, FACOG. 

Creative solutions for facilitating traditional Navajo birth

It was a whopping 102 degrees during the day with plummeting temperatures at night in Shiprock, New Mexico on the sacred land of Navajo Nation. The soon-to-be new parents’ camp was set up completely off grid with no running water or electricity.

Indigenous Doula, student homebirth midwife, and New Mexico Doula Association birth equity co-chair Natasha Bowman and her colleague Indigenous Doula and the Executive Director for The Navajo Breastfeeding Coalition Amanda Singer, CLC got to chatting about how they could best serve their client who desired a traditional Navajo birth under these conditions.

Considering their own well-being and the safety of their clients, Bowman and Singer initially joked about hauling Bowman and her fiancé LaDarrell Skeet’s fifth wheel out onto the land. But Skeet helped make it a reality.

The team was able to set up a mobile birthing suite for the new family and their care team complete with air conditioning, clean water and a bathroom. What’s more, the certified professional midwife attending the birth brought along her small trailer too.

“When we do births on the Navajo reservation, we have to think outside of the box,” Bowman explains.

Bowman, who has always been interested in labor and delivery, realized while working with the University of New Mexico’s Birth Companion Program, the lack of Indigenous birth workers. During one training, in a roomful of 40 participants, three were Indigenous.

“I was shocked,” Bowman says. “There has to be a change. There has to be more Indigenous birth workers.”

Later, Bowman attended another training with the Changing Woman Initiative, where she first met Singer. Since then, they’ve been realizing their vision of more Indigenous doulas and birth workers.

Bowman and her partners are continually learning the traditional Navajo ways of birthing and bringing those rituals to their clients.

“Some [clients] are for it, and some are against it because they have always been told they should be birthing in a hospital,” Bowman begins.

She goes on to explain that some of her clients have been scolded and ridiculed by pediatricians, other health care providers and even family and friends for planning a home birth despite the evidence confirming that among low-risk women, planned home births result in low rates of interventions without an increase in adverse outcomes for mothers and babies.

Bowman describes some of the elements of traditional birth which include integrating song, herbal remedies, teas and tinctures, and traditional dress in sash belts and moccasins.

“We believe in the exchange of energy and thoughts,” Bowman continues. “Good intentions, pure thoughts, and lots of prayers.”

It is customary for birth workers to tie a bandana over their heads as well as a Sani scarf, sash belt, or rebozo with an arrowhead tucked inside around the waist to protect the reproductive system.

“It is to protect us from the powerful energy the laboring parent is releasing,” Bowman explains. “It is like armor for us.”

Bowman and Singer and their partners are confronting the health realities in their community through other collaborations too. Their funding partners are The Kellogg Foundation, The Brindle Foundation and United HealthCare. Partnering organizations include Indigenous Women Rising, New Mexico Doula Association, Bidii Baby Foods and Saad K’idilyé, a grassroots organization dedicated to providing traditional teachings to the urban Diné communities around Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Last summer, the Saad K’idilyé Diné Language Nest (SKDLN) opened as a  central urban hub where Saad K’idilyé meets with families, babies, caretakers, and its community.

“A language nest is a community site-based language program for children from birth to three years old where they are immersed in their Native (heritage) language,” as described on their website. “SKDLN is a safe, home-like environment for young children to interact with Diné Bizaad speakers, often elders, through meaningful activities.”

Bowman was able to witness the interactions.
“It was amazing!” she exclaims.

Eventually, Bowman says that she and her colleagues would like to create their own Indigenous Doula training with teachings specific to Navajo birth culture.
In the meantime, they’re celebrating National Breastfeeding Month with Indigenous Milk Medicine Week: From the Stars to a Sustainable Future during the week of August 8 to 14. The breastfeeding coalition will reveal a Navajo translation breastfeeding art piece during this celebration.

And while the fifth wheel doula mobile has stirred up great interest within the community on social media, for the time being, there won’t be an expansion of this service. Bowman and Skeet’s fifth wheel remains on the move though, helping keep the birth team comfortable. Follow its tracks by following the Navajo Breastfeeding Coalition on Facebook.

Tips for infusing equity into philanthropy

In April, we reported on a thread that came up during the Black Birth Maternal & Infant Health Symposium: capitalism and how it influences health equity.

This month, the United States Breastfeeding Committee (USBC) hosted Philanthropy with an Equity Lens featuring Dr. Cara V. James of Grantmakers in Health.

Photo by Jon Tyson

For those who couldn’t attend, there will be a recording sent to registrants. And if you missed registration, we’ve distilled the conversation in hopes that you’ll use it as a jumping-off point in your discovery or continued understanding of operationalizing Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI) or what is sometimes referred to as J.E.D.I. (Justice, Equity, Diversity, Inclusion).

First off, USBC Senior Engagement & Training Manager Denae Schmidt and Dr. James made the distinction between operationalizing DEI and advancing health equity. Simply put, the former is the practice and the latter is the outcome. Dr. James suggested participants think of the distinction as the difference between who is doing the work and who is being served.

So, what practices are philanthropists adopting in order to serve the advancement of health equity?

  • Funders are reevaluating what is truly needed from grantseekers. Many are making the application process less tedious, acknowledging that many small organizations do not have the resources to “jump through hoops.”
  • Some funders are forgoing reporting requirements, adopting the concept of trust-based philanthropy.  Trust-based philanthropy embraces the idea that the community has a lot of expertise, as Dr. James puts it. In this relationship, there is trust in the collaboration, a power share. Dr. James nods to MacKenzie Scott who tends to vet organizations on the front end in order to understand their focus, and then give funding with no strings attached.
  • Over the past five or so years, there has been a shift in the field to recognize that there needs to be more capacity-building for grant seekers. Catchafire is a “network of volunteers, nonprofits, and funders working together to solve urgent problems and lift up communities” offering pro bono services. Find out how that works here: https://vimeo.com/462743914
  • Dr. James reports that more people are starting to recognize that policy is an important piece in health equity. She said that we need to get “upstream” to address health disparities which means that we need to address the structures that lead to poor outcomes in conjunction with providing resources to organizations.

 

What are some tips for grant seekers?

Photo by Tim Mossholder
  • Grantseekers can check funders’ websites for statements on commitments to DEI to make sure it’s a good fit for them. Grantseekers might also research what other projects funders have supported to get a sense of what kind of work they invest in.
  • Grantseekers might consider inviting potential funders to their events in order to engage with the community. Dr. James suggests not approaching the first meeting with funders with an “ask”.
  • Work alongside and across spaces to pool resources like talent and time. Collaboration expands reach, and this is desirable to funders.
  • Don’t be afraid to reach out to funders to get more information about how proposals can align more with their commitment.

Schmidt and Dr. James closed with some thoughts on why good intentions just aren’t good enough. Mainly, good intentions don’t always lead to action, Dr. James pointed out. And sometimes, she added, they can lead to harmful action. She reminded us that we didn’t start talking about health equity in 2020. These discussions had been happening long before, and what has been missing are the resources and the support in leadership.

What leadership talks about in public and in private signals what they care about, Dr. James continued. Individuals leading DEI initiatives need to have the authority and the respect to make decisions.

So, generally speaking, what can we all do to help operationalize DEI?

  • Take the courageous stand to commit to DEI.
  • Facilitate the collection and evaluation of DEI initiatives, so that we can gain an understanding of what is happening in these spaces.
  • Enter spaces with cultural humility. Recognize who is already in the space and what you can learn from them.

Pregnant and breastfeeding individuals’ involvement in clinical trials

During her second pregnancy, a ​​mother tested positive for cytomegalovirus (CMV). The CMV virus can cross through the placenta and infect a developing fetus, potentially causing birth defects or other long-term health problems. This mother was contacted and presented with the opportunity to participate in a clinical trial where she would be infused with a drug that would potentially mitigate the risks of her child developing congenital CMV.

The mother reports that because her child was already at risk, she saw participating in the trial as something she could do to avoid the risk of potential health problems.

The process of participating was relatively simple considering her work-from-home arrangement and having reliable child care for her older child.

At last, her daughter was born healthy and continues to thrive.

This mother reports that, until recently, she hadn’t considered what she would have done if something had gone wrong as a consequence of participating in the trial. She said that she’s unsure what kind of compensation might make up for a hypothetical injury to her child who was unable to consent to the trial. She emphasized that parents dedicate themselves to making the right decisions for their children, so the stress of raising a child with special needs coupled with the guilt of having made the “wrong” decision, could be shattering.

Photo by Ermias Tarekegn

The inclusion of pregnant and lactating people in clinical trials is part of an evolving national and international conversation.

Earlier this spring, the Committee on Developing a Framework to Address Legal, Ethical, Regulatory, and Policy Issues for Research Specific to Pregnant and Lactating Persons held a workshop to discuss how institutions make risk-benefit decisions regarding the inclusion and exclusion of pregnant and lactating persons in clinical research, and the role of liability, risk management, and trial insurance in those decisions as well as reviewed existing compensation schemes for research-related injuries and potential to scale these models to serve the needs of research participants.

Historically, pregnant and breastfeeding women have been excluded from clinical trials, due to concerns about the real or perceived potential risks to the fetus or child. [FDA Voices, 2021] Namely, the thalidomide crisis in the 1950s largely shaped the culture around risk aversion and clinical testing on the pregnant population.

“A 2011 study on all medications approved by the FDA from 1980 to 2010 found that 91 percent of the medications approved for use by adults did not have sufficient data on safety, efficacy and fetal risk of medication taken during pregnancy,” the authors of Fair inclusion of pregnant women in clinical trials: an integrated scientific and ethical approach write.  “At the same time, the number of pregnant women who take medications, as well as the number of medications that these pregnant women take, has increased.”

Today, health advocates are pushing for the inclusion of this population in clinical research on the basis that patients should have solid evidence in order to make informed decisions about their health.

Photo by Polina Tankilevitch

“Not having this evidence can result in unfairness in the distribution of benefits and burdens (injustice) and can curtail the autonomy in making informed choice,” Catriona Waitt writes in Clinical trials and pregnancy. “This may make it impossible to provide the best treatment, undermining the principle of beneficence, and risking increasing harm.”

Speakers at the workshop cited several roadblocks to the inclusion of pregnant and lactating people in clinical research.

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) are charged with keeping patients safe, so they often take a very conservative approach. [White, 2021] Elisa A. Hurley, PhD, executive director of Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research (PRIM&R) explained that the current framework does not encourage or assess the risk of not doing research on this population, and that the culture needs to shift from exclusion to inclusion as the default. Dr. Hurley cited the University of Washington where there’s been a shift to require justification to exclude pregnant and lactating populations.

Lorien Urban, Ph.D., Senior Medical Director Clinical Development at Ferring Pharmaceuticals pointed out that IRBs tend not to acknowledge a distinction between pregnancy and lactation when reviewing trials. In fact, while the placental barrier can be sensitive, there are very few drugs that pass through to mothers’ milk. [InfantRisk Center]

Photo credit: United States Breastfeeding Committee

Metin Gülmezoğlu, M.D., Executive Director at the Concept Foundation argued that pregnant and lactating women should demand to be included in research, and that governments should react accordingly, assuming responsibility and taking action.

Gülmezoğlu’s project AIM responds to the created culture of risk aversion in the field. Gülmezoğlu said that risk aversion doesn’t get rid of risk; instead it shifts risk to another person: either the care provider or the pregnant person themself.

Risk is of primary concern for companies and organizations conducting research in these populations.

Sara E. Dyson, M.P.H., C.P.C.U.,Vice President of Underwriting Operations & Risk Management at Medmarc laid out the ways in which institutions can make their trials less risky and more attractive to underwriters:

  • demonstrate for the potential risk,
  • conduct significant bench testing,
  • conduct informed consent on video,
  • ensure compensation is reasonable and cannot be construed as coercion
  • consult with reputable IRB (multiple IRBs in some cases),
  • select a trial site (for instance an institution with specialty in high risk pregnancy)

Niranjan Bhat, M.D., M.H.S., Senior Medical Officer at PATH, shared that PATH’s global umbrella policy which covers any adverse event during participation of the study is a key research enabler.

Michelle Mello, J.D., Ph.D., Professor of Law and Health Policy at Stanford University and Renée J. Gentry, Esq., one of the leading experts on vaccine injury litigation in the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (NVICP), laid out the ways in which tort versus private compensation programs can be successful or unsuccessful in compensating injured clinical trial participants.  In either case, proving causation tends to be the primary difficulty on the battleground for product liability.

The tort system is capacious enough to handle injury claims, Dr. Bello began. However, using Winston Churchill’s metaphor for democracy–  “Democracy is the worst form of government – except for all the others that have been tried.”– it tends to favor the wealthy, is laborious in terms of time, and presents high volatility in terms of settled amounts.

Photo by Ekaterina Bolovtsova

Perhaps not a solid alternative, a system like NVICP, is at a “breaking point”, according to Gentry. The program started with eight special masters when it began in the 1980s; today this number remains. Set up to cover six vaccines, the program now covers 16 vaccines; as such the number of complaints have quadrupled in the past decade. People are waiting two to three years to have their trials scheduled. In fact, some seniors have died waiting for their trials.

Gentry advises that when considering the creation of a compensation system, there should be flexibility built in to include the modification of staffing levels and scheme.

Photo by Parinda Shaan

In a private system, like the UW-Washington Human Subjects Compensation Program, this flexibility is a positive attribute; however, speakers pointed out that private systems do not address two major points:

  1. A private system does not get around addressing causation difficulties.
  2. A private system does not necessarily address equity and has the potential to lead to a patchwork of compensation of different solutions at different levels of generosity.

As health professionals, consumers and other individuals and organizations work to shape the legal, ethical and policy frameworks that affect research on the pregnant and lactating population, you might consider consulting the following readings and resources.

 

Further reading 

Clinical trials and pregnancy

A Comparison of FDA and EMA Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling

FDA’s Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling (Drugs) Final Rule (2014)

FDA Updates: Pregnant Women Subjects and Medical Device Investigations (2018)

 

Current resources for pregnant and lactating individuals and care providers 

The Trash the Pump and Dump (TPD) app encompasses medical conditions, medications and substances of concern during lactation.

Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed®)

FDA Pregnancy Categories 

E-lactancia: comprehensive medication and herbal medicine database in Spain, available in English and Spanish

Organization of Teratology Information Specialists

Brigham and Women’s Hospital Drugs, Herbs, and Supplements during lactation

Breastfeeding is an opportunity to learn.

–This post is part of our 10-year anniversary series “Breastfeeding is…”

Breastfeeding is an opportunity to learn. Although breastfeeding is an ancient practice, there is still so much to learn about the lactating breast, breast function and the process of breastfeeding, especially as our modern lives continue to change.

Many current textbook depictions of the anatomy of the lactating breast are largely based on research conducted over 150 years ago, Donna T. Geddess points out in The anatomy of the lactating breast: Latest research and clinical implications.

“…Few studies have actively investigated the anatomy of the lactating breast despite the obvious importance a clear understanding of the lactating mammary gland has to both mother and infant,” Geddess writes. “Perhaps this lack of information is a part of the greater reason why many women continue to experience breastfeeding problems.”

Katherine Lee writes in Katie Hinde Championing the Fun Side of Science Through Virtual Animal Games, Thunderdome Style about Hinde’s hope to change the perception about breastmilk and quotes her saying “‘Still to this day, there is no integration between breastfeeding and milk composition and volume,’ noted Hinde. ‘In Pubmed, there are more articles about tomatoes than human breast milk.’ When they listed the human microbiome project, they didn’t include breastmilk…”

This week we present several  recent (in the last 5 years) publications that are helping to shape our understanding of infant feeding. We have also included studies that relate specifically to pregnancy as pregnancy, birth and breastfeeding are all part of a continuum.

It is important to note that research published in medical journals is not the only way to capture and develop an understanding of infant feeding experiences. For instance, Camie Jae Goldhammer,  MSW, LICSW, IBCLC, (Sisseton-Wahpeton), founder of  Hummingbird Indigenous Doula Services says that their program is proudly not rooted in “evidence”; instead, it’s a community designed program. Anecdotal evidence and indigenous knowledge and wisdom should be honored. Moreover, as with any research, we must always consider how the research is funded, who is or is not being represented, and how the research is presented. For more on equity in science, check out Increasing equity in data science and the work being done at the Urban Indian Health Institute.

 

Lactation duration and stroke risk 

In February 2022, Ziyang Ren, MD, et al released Lactation Duration and the Risk of Subtypes of Stroke Among Parous Postmenopausal Women From the China Kadoorie Biobank.

Stroke is a growing global health problem. It is the third leading cause of disability adjusted–life years (DALYs) worldwide and the first leading cause of DALYs in China, Ren, et al point out. Stroke  imposes a financial burden on patients, families, and society. The cohort study found that lactation duration significantly lowers the risk of stroke.

Up until now, most research has focused on the association between lactation and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but this piece lays out the association between lactation and stroke subtypes.

Specifically, the study found that parous postmenopausal women with lifetime lactation duration of at least 7 months had lower risks of ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) compared with women who never lactated. For subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) though, such associations were found only in participants with lifetime lactation duration of longer than 24 months. In addition, the authors found that those with an average lactation duration per child or lactation duration for the first child of at least 7 months were less likely to develop stroke and its subtypes.

 

Marijuana exposure in utero 

Birth Outcomes of Neonates Exposed to Marijuana in Utero: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis by Greg Marchand, et al, the largest meta-analyses on prenatal cannabis use to date, the authors  found significant increases in seven adverse neonatal outcomes among women who were exposed to marijuana during pregnancy versus those who were not exposed during pregnancy.

Photo by Solen Feyissa on Unsplash

The systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrated higher rates of low birth weight (<2500 g) and small for gestational age (<fifth percentile), lower mean birth weight, preterm delivery (<37 weeks’ gestation), higher rate of admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, poorer Apgar scores at 1 minute, and smaller head circumference in those exposed to marijuana.

The prevalence of marijuana use during pregnancy is significant, and many people cite the belief that marijuana use is relatively safe during

pregnancy. This work may help to raise awareness and be used to educate patients about adverse outcomes with the hope of improving neonatal health.

With increased marijuana legalization in mind, Kara R. Skelton, PhD and  Sara E. Benjamin-Neelon, PhD, JD, MPH in Reexamining Risks of Prenatal Cannabis Use—Mounting Evidence and a Call to Action urge states that have legalized and commercialized cannabis to retroactively prioritize protection of neonatal health.

More on cannabis during the perinatal period here.

 

Childhood obesity 

The authors of Childhood Obesity and Breastfeeding Rates in Pennsylvania Counties-Spatial Analysis of the Lactation Support Landscape examined the relationship between childhood obesity and breastfeeding rates in Pennsylvania (PA) counties, the relationship between geographic access to professional lactation support providers  (LSPs) in PA counties and breastfeeding rates, and  the relationship between geographic access to professional LSPs and childhood obesity in PA counties. They found a significant, inverse relationship between breastfeeding rates and childhood obesity prevalence at the county level and a significant, inverse relationship between the number of CLCs and the number of all professional LSPs and childhood obesity rates at the county level. Thus,  the authors conclude, the availability of breastfeeding support is significantly related to breastfeeding rates and inversely related to childhood obesity rates across Pennsylvania.

 

Measuring optimal skin-to-skin practice 

The authors of Mapping, Measuring, and Analyzing the Process of Skin-to-Skin Contact and Early Breastfeeding in the First Hour After Birth show how process mapping of optimal skin-to-skin practice in the first hour after birth using the algorithm, HCP-S2S-IA, produced an accurate and useful measurement, illuminating how work is conducted and providing patterns for analysis and opportunities for improvement with targeted interventions.

More specifically, the algorithm provides a tool to help reduce delays or decrease interruptions during skin-to-skin contact (SSC). The authors note, “Not suckling in the first hour after birth places newborns at higher risk for neonatal morbidities and mortality. Examining patterns and developing strategies for change optimizes patient outcomes.”

 

Acknowledging the social determinants of health

Pregnancy and the origins of illness (2022) by Anne Drapkin Lyerly begins by acknowledging that the COVID-19 pandemic has induced a collective trauma that is expected to be felt for generations after the virus is contained. The study of epigenetics has shown that children gestated or born during times of great tragedy, carry a genetically coded and inherited imprint of their mother’s experience with lifelong consequences to their health.

Recognizing the “maternal-fetal interface” as the “nexus of inter-generational trauma” raises the question of how we should think about this implication of maternal bodies, especially in light of the current pandemic.

The author explores the growing field of developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) and its use of epigenetics. Thinking about the tools of history, philosophy, and gender studies of science, the author advises we proceed with caution as we consider maternal effect science which raises several concerns that can impact practice and the well-being of mothers and consequently their children.

Namely,  there may be a tendency to ascribe blame on pregnant people for the health outcomes of their offspring that are well beyond their control. This approach doesn’t adequately weigh the effects of paternal, postanal, and other social and environmental factors that also influence the long-term health of children.

Analyzing epigenetics can eventually contribute to the erasure of the mother as a person, and further, characterizing the maternal body as an environment may excuse women from being appropriately considered in public health policies, clinical care and health research.

The author considers DOHaD research a corrective approach to near-sighted fetal origins science and urges that we expand our understanding of the gestational environment from not simply the womb, but to the broader environment in which a person gestates, marking the importance of acknowledging the social determinants of health. To best direct our efforts during the current pandemic, the author suggests shifting the focus off of maternal behavior and choices and instead focus on limiting the harm of climate change, racism, and other structural inequities.

 

Can’t get enough? 

Check out the Breastfeeding Medicine Podcat’s episode Review of a Potpourri of Research Topics with co Hosts Anne Eglash MD, IBCLC and Karen Bodnar MD, IBCLC. You can find a full list of their podcast episodes here.

Subscribe to SPLASH! Milk Science Update

Check out The International Society for Research in Human Milk and Lactation

 

——–

As part of our celebration, we are giving away an online learning module with contact hours each week. Here’s how to enter into the drawings:

Email info@ourmilkyway.org with your name and “OMW is 10” in the subject line.

This week, in the body of the email, tell us: What fascinates you about breastfeeding and/or what do you wonder about breastfeeding?

Subsequent weeks will have a different prompt in the blog post.

We will conduct a new drawing each week over the 10-week period.  Please email separately each week to be entered in the drawing. You may only win once. If your name is drawn, we will email a link with access to the learning module. The winner of the final week will score a grand finale swag bag.