Reflections from a volunteer CLC working on naval base

Many of our Our Milky Way interviewees launch into their advocacy for
healthy infant feeding after they’ve endured personal situations with their
own babies. This is not Crystal Grask’s, CLC origin story into the world
of breastfeeding though.  Now the mother of a darling little one, Grask
serves as a Red Cross volunteer lactation counselor at Naval Base Rota
in Spain, but her road to breastfeeding started before becoming a
mother.

We’re pumped to feature this interview with Grask this week on Our
Milky Way.

On discovering her passion for maternal child health…

I had really no insight into maternal child health until I found myself
interviewing for the Communications Coordinator position with the Rocky
Mountain Children’s Health Foundation and Mothers’ Milk Bank. Once I
obtained the role, I started working directly with Laraine Lockhart-
Borman, the then director of the milk bank…her staff… Donor Relations
Coordinators, Certified Lactation Educators, Doulas and more. I found
myself immersed in a totally new world and was soaking up the
knowledge like a sponge. Everyday I learned something new about
breastfeeding, donating human milk, or lactation and the impact these
things have on the mother-baby dyads and the families we served.
As I learned…I found myself becoming more and more passionate about
helping moms, babies and families have successful happy starts in life.
Through the RMCHF and MMB I learned about the the Lactation
Counselor Training Course (LCTC), learned about the importance of
breastfeeding, saw firsthand the impact donating and receiving donor
human milk had on mother-baby dyads and families, and was able to
observe and glean insight into dozens of parents’ feeding journeys
through the Foundation’s  programming and milk bank’s weekly Baby
Cafe pregnancy and postpartum moms groups.

On completing the LCTC…

… Life happened, and I was unable to take the course during my tenure
at the [RMCHF], but the passion didn’t go away. It continued to blossom. I moved to Washington State where the course wasn’t offered,
but I remained passionate and steadfast in my desires using my
previous knowledge about breastfeeding/lactation to help providers (OBs
and Pediatricians) communicate with their patients about breastfeeding. I
knew I still wanted to work in this realm, and decided that once I was
able to obtain my CLC certification, I would like to pursue a private
practice.

In 2020, the course became virtual, which allowed me to start my
training! I started in December of 2020, and soon after, we moved to
Spain with the Navy. It was there I finished my training, in June of 2021. I
loved the virtual nature of the training and found – even when I was an
ocean away – I could tune in, interact during office hours, and complete
the course with ease. I really appreciated that!

On her own breastfeeding journey…

Flash forward five years… I found myself breastfeeding my daughter,
Julieanne, and having a rough journey. We started off feeding well,
resolving minor latch issues right off the bat. However, despite having a
small but adequate supply, she struggled to gain weight. Our pediatrician
immediately suggested formula supplementation, and I struggled with
that suggestion. My husband was a huge supporter of breastfeeding,
and also felt like there wasn’t a huge need to supplement. I was able to
reach out to prior colleagues… for observations, but neither of them
could find anything truly amiss. My daughter latches well and has always
been very healthy, but didn’t gain weight well no matter how much or
what we were feeding her. We discovered she has a very high
metabolism and strong passion for eating, so I found myself feeding
round the clock, triple feeding for a few weeks, and eventually settling
into a combo-feeding routine. While it wasn’t my picture perfect image of
how our breastfeeding journey would go, I am proud to say we’re still
largely breastfeeding and she’s gained a significant amount of weight.

Photo by Taylor Marie Photography

I hope to help moms receive the support I lacked in the immediate
postpartum. With consistent help and follow-up observations, perhaps
we wouldn’t have needed to supplement. I want to be that resource for other moms, to help them feel validated, encouraged to meet their goals,
and support them no matter what their feeding choices are.

On landing her volunteer CLC position at the naval base…

One of the first things I noticed after arriving at Naval Base Rota was the
multitude of pregnant women around. We were still living in COVID
times, and I quickly learned while there was support for moms to
breastfeed from a command standpoint, there were not many staff or
programs available to support the station’s breastfeeding dyads either in
hospital or at home postpartum. I knew I could help bridge this gap.
After exploring a few different avenues, I found I was able to sign up with
the Red Cross as a volunteer CLC at the Navy Medicine Readiness and
Training Command Rota (Naval Hospital Rota) Maternal Child Infant
ward! This role gives me the unique opportunity to help moms within
hours after delivering her baby, and help these dyads and families start
their feeding journeys feeling confident and supported.

On a typical day in this role…

I come in, check in with the nurse on duty or head nurse for a rundown
of our patients to learn about their delivery(ies), their baby, their current
health situation, and how feeding has been going thus far. I also ask if
mom/family has presented them with any concerns/questions about
feeding thus far, so I can be as prepared as possible when I first meet
with a mom.
After ensuring I have all the information/resources ready, I go meet with
the mom/baby dyad/ family. While in their room, we talk about how mom
is doing, I meet their new little one, and we go over how their feeling
about feeding thus far. I often provide latch assessments, and observe
feedings while in the room as well. Sometimes, during this, we’ll be in a
more relaxed setting, and mom will ask questions about any concerns
she has for when she goes home, which I answer or refer her to her
provider or the base’s Visiting Nurse if it’s a subject outside of my scope.

Once my initial visit is over, I will make a follow up plan with mom if
desired, then input notes and do any supplemental research for her. At
my follow up visit (usually that day or the next) I will give her any
resources we discussed and provide answers to her questions.
In the LCTC, we focused a lot on listening to mom, hearing her story and
using that, her experience and her health history to guide our
counseling. I think I use that often to meet moms where they are and
give them the care they deserve. I also find I’m teaching the asymmetric
latch often, even to second and third time moms! I also cover hand
expression and storage guidelines often. We get a lot of questions
around pumping and building a stash of milk for returning to work,
especially for active duty moms.

I have also started seeing postpartum patients in the hospital’s OBGYN clinic.

On unique challenges…
Grask at Rota Breastfeeding Week 2023 presenting topics like skin-to-skin and hand expression 

I think there is a strong desire to help breastfeeding moms here, but
there is an apparent lack of resources, especially for postpartum moms.
The community has one Visiting Nurse who is a rockstar seeing many
moms daily, but she’s unfortunately the only one able to do so at the
moment. To help bridge this gap, I’ve gained approval to have a small
business, Asbury Breastfeeding Counseling, and am offering my
services to moms in the community in addition to my work as a
volunteer. I’m also working with the Visiting Nurse and hospital MCI
leads to host monthly breastfeeding courses at the hospital, promote the
existing pregnancy and postpartum support groups, and soon will be
offering a BYOBB (Bring Your Own Baby and Breastfeed) class at the
hospital for new moms to learn the various positions they can breastfeed
their babies in and be available to answer any questions/troubleshoot
any feeding/latch issues in person.
We also hosted Rota Breastfeeding Week helping educate the
community here on what is available for new moms and showcasing the
various lactation spaces. We also had a latch on nursing event.

On goals for next year…

 

Over the next year, I hope to reach more moms and families to help
them feed successfully… I know this community’s resources are slim. I hope to establish these classes and have imparted education to staff so
when I ultimately transition out of this station, I know I am leaving moms
with supportive providers who can help her achieve her goals.

Some favorite breastfeeding stories…

While working at the Mothers’ Milk Bank, I was able to sit in on several
Baby Cafe postpartum support groups. During a few of these groups, I
met a parenting duo and their little one. No matter what they did, this
mom struggled to make enough for her little one, but desperately wanted
to make breastfeeding work. I listened and observed them for weeks,
learning from their interactions as a couple, parents and individuals and
gleaning insights from the [lactation care provider]  helping them.
Ultimately, I believe they began to feed with donor milk and formula, but
it was their journey and the persevering passion to help their baby and
family thrive that left an impression on me.
Here in Rota, I have been lucky enough to see a few of the moms I’ve
helped in early days several months postpartum. Two such dyads come
to mind. One was a new mom, baby born a couple weeks early had had
an ample supply of milk. Due to her baby’s early arrival, the baby was
transferred to a Spanish hospital where they received formula instead of
her breast milk. I saw her about five days postpartum and her milk
supply had fully come in but the baby was fussy and struggled to latch.
We worked on several techniques, including skin-to-skin care, cross-
cradle and football holds, asymmetric latch and also discussed ways to
pump/store milk. I was worried as this mom seemed to be ready to give
up quickly, but I ran into her six months postpartum and her once small
baby was now thriving on breast milk! It was a beautiful thing to see and
she is still breastfeeding.
In January, I served the family who had the first baby of the year. The
parents were first time parents, and had no idea what to expect or how
to navigate breastfeeding now their arrival had made her debut. Mom
and I worked on recognizing feeding cues, latching, promoting skin-to-
skin care, using dad for support, and discussed various ways to pump– hand express, manual, double-electric, wearables, to help her build a
supply later on. Soon after I had my own baby, I ran into this mom at a
moms group and found breastfeeding was going well for her! Her little
one was steadily gaining weight and she felt confident in her feeding
routine and encouraged by the support she had received early on. I was
elated at this update and so happy to see them thrive.
Personally, breastfeeding hasn’t been as easy as I’d like, but when I feed
it is the most wonderful, almost indescribable feeling. One of my favorite
stories I have is from my early postpartum days. I had been hanging out
skin-to-skin with her on the couch and accidentally fallen asleep. A little
while later I awoke — to a baby suckling on my breast! I had heard and
known about a baby’s natural instinct to find the breast, but I hadn’t expected her to seek it out and find it on her own when she was so new
to the world. Now she giggles whenever she sees my breast and is
especially excited for boob food time!

Changing the culture of mother baby separation in one Northeastern hospital

“I got to touch him once and they took him right away from me,” Northern Light Eastern Maine Medical Center labor and delivery nurse Jennifer Wickett says, remembering the birth of her first child 19 years ago.

Wickett desired non-medicated births, but her three children ended up being born via cesarean sections for various reasons. Wickett’s personal birth experiences coincided with her early professional life, working at a hospital in Massachusetts as a labor and delivery nurse.

At the time, she explains, the process was this: the baby was born,  taken to the warmer, vitals and weight were recorded. The baby was wrapped in a blanket and held next to mom’s face for five to ten minutes and then taken to the newborn nursery.

Skin-to-skin in the OR, Healthy Children Project

“I hated that for my patients and I hated that for me,” Wickett says.

So Wickett singularly started changing that culture of mother baby separation.
Now, at Northern Light Eastern Maine Medical Center, Wickett attends about 95 percent of the c-sections, and she says she was able to “take control.”

“[Initially] I wasn’t tucking baby in skin-to-skin, but I was putting baby on top of mom with the support person helping hold the baby,” Wickett explains.
She deemed it the Wickett hold: baby placed chest down on mom with knees tucked under the left breast and baby’s head on the right breast.

Attending a Kangaroo Mother Care Conference in Cleveland galvanized her efforts: the evidence clearly supported skin-to-skin contact immediately after birth and beyond.  Fellow nurses, anesthesiologists and other team members were resistant, but Wickett and a few other fellow nurses who created the Kangaroo Care Committee kept at it, always leading with kindness and communication. Rather than approaching the process with an “I have to do this” agenda, Wickett involves and acknowledges all of the participants in the room.

For instance, to the mother, she asks permission while also explaining the importance of skin-to-skin contact.

“They’re in hook line and sinker when I explain that their body regulates their baby’s temperature,” Wickett explains. “They don’t want to give that baby up; they are not letting that baby go.”

To the anesthesiologist, she facilitates open communication. Wickett lets them know that she assumes responsibility for the baby. “Are you good?” she often checks in with the anesthesiologist, while minding their space to work safely and efficiently.

Wickett  makes certain to involve the partner in their baby’s care, asking them to keep a watchful eye over mom and baby.

Photo by Jonathan Borba

Just about half of the babies she sees begin breastfeeding in the OR, she reports. From the OR, babies are kept on their mothers’ chests as they’re transferred to the recovery room, continuing the opportunity to breastfeed. All in all, Wickett says that babies born by c-section at her hospital spend more time skin-to-skin than those who are born vaginally.

After a vaginal birth, eager nurses often disturb skin-to-skin contact to complete their screenings and documentation. Excited partners wanting to hold their baby tend to do the same.

In the OR though, Wickett says there are at least 30 minutes without these disruptions.  Once mother and baby are transferred to the PACU, mothers report decreased pain when skin-to-skin is practiced.

What’s more, Wickett reports hearing often “This baby is such a good breastfeeder!” because the babies have an opportunity to initiate breastfeeding within the first two hours of life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that immediate, continuous, uninterrupted skin-to-skin contact should be the standard of care for all mothers and all babies (from 1000 grams with experienced staff if assistance is needed), after all modes of birth. The recent Skin-to-skin contact after birth: Developing a research and practice guideline synthesizes the evidence. [Read more here.]

Skin-to-skin, Healthy Children Project

Wickett and seven other colleagues had the opportunity to complete the Lactation Counselor Training Course (LCTC) last year.
While she says she would have loved to have been able to take the course in-person, Wickett still found the material and resources “fabulous.”

For the past four years, there’s been a vacancy in the perinatal coordinator position at her hospital, so Wickett hopes that her new credentials will allow her to fill the need.  In the meantime, Northern Light Eastern Maine Medical Center offers outpatient lactation visits. The center’s breastfeeding support groups halted during the height of COVID and have yet to resume; Wickett reports that they are trying to bring those back virtually.

Additionally, Maine residents have access to the CradleME Program which
offers home-based services to anyone pregnant up to one year postpartum.
In partnership with the Mothers’ Milk Bank Northeast , Northern Light Eastern Maine Medical Center became the first milk depot in the Bangor area.

You can read more Our Milky Way coverage on skin-to-skin after cesarean birth in  Skin-to-skin in the operating room after cesarean birth , The Association Between Common Labor Drugs and Suckling When Skin-to-Skin During the First Hour After Birth , and Skin to skin in the OR.

Also check out Skin to Skin in the First Hour After Birth; Practical Advice for Staff after Vaginal and Cesarean Birth Skin to Skin.

Find some beautiful KMC imagery here.

Celebrating Semana de La Lactancia Latina and the efforts of Lactancia Latina en el Suroeste de Kansas

It’s almost Semana de La Lactancia Latina (September 5- 11)! New this year to National Breastfeeding Month, we celebrate Latina/x families and raise awareness about infant feeding barriers specific to Latin communities.

Residents and visitors of Southwest Kansas have the delight of enjoying the efforts of the Lactancia Latina en el Suroeste de Kansas, an organization formed in late 2018 with the nurturing of the Kansas Breastfeeding Coalition and Ford County Breastfeeding Coalition.

Photo by Rosalba Ruiz, used with permission from Latina/x Breastfeeding Week/ https://www.facebook.com/Latinxbreastfeedingweek

This week, with the help of Carmen Valverde, CLC, Local Coordinator at the Lactancia Latina en el Suroeste de Kansas and 2022 USBC Cultural Changemaker Awardee, we highlight the organization’s projects in honor of Semana de La Lactancia Latina.

At the age of seven, Valverde was an immigrant to the United States. Her passion to help the Latin community comes from not having the support she needed while raising her young children.

“I totally relate to the struggles the families in Southwestern Kansas face,” Valverde comments.

In partnership with Vigness Welding, NACCHO, UnitedHealthCare, Western Kansas Community Foundation, the Kansas Breastfeeding Coalition,  and the City of Dodge City,  Lactancia Latina en el Suroeste de Kansas coordinated the placement of several lactation benches throughout the Southwest communities.

The first bench was placed in Garden City because they have the largest zoo in the rural region. Each bench has a QR code with the Kansas Breastfeeding Coalition directory so that families can find the support they need based on their zip code, Valverde explains.

Photo source Lactancia Latina en el Suroeste de Kansas

Additionally, billboards were installed in high traffic areas. The billboards have information about where to find infant feeding support on social media and information about lactation in the workplace.

Alongside breastfeeding, soccer is Valverde’s other passion; Lactancia Latina en el Suroeste de Kansas is a proud sponsor of the Dodge City Toros and Atletico Liberal. Sponsorship was made possible by HealthConnect One.

Valverde has made it a point not to “reinvent the wheel” in the coalition’s efforts to support breastfeeding and become more visible.

“… I like to work and partner with other organizations and events so that we can both have the best outcome,” Valverde begins. “It just works out better that way… So far the public has received it very well. We’ve had more moms… get involved with our local coalitions as a result of it and the [local] newspaper has done a piece on [the sponsorship].”

During one of the most trying times during the pandemic, the coalition was able to accomplish the recording of a PSA with a local meat packing plant in Dodge City. Valverde says the plant, Cargill, does a marvelous job investing in their employees. Watch the video here.

Lactancia Latina en el Suroeste de Kansas provided scholarships to an all-Spanish breastfeeding training made possible through a NACCHO grant and partnership with Lactation Education Resources’s certified breastfeeding specialist training. Valverde reports that the coalition is currently planning an  in-person skills day training so that the online training material can be reinforced.

Source: United States Breastfeeding Committee

You can learn more about these projects and Lactancia Latina en el Suroeste de Kansas’s future endeavors on Facebook.

From Africa to Appalachia, improved relationships and communication through nutrition research

 From Africa to Appalachia, Stephanie L. Martin’s, PhD, CLC research on nutrition during pregnancy, lactation, and childhood, has gone beyond nutrition alone.

In a world where infant feeding is commonly reduced to input and output, “perfect” latches and weighted feeds, Martin’s work illuminates the added benefit of improved relationships and communication. 

In Zambia for instance, Martin and her colleagues have looked at how to engage family members to support nutrition in women living with HIV and their children. 

Twenty years ago, when antiretroviral therapy (ART) was less accessible, the risk of transmitting HIV through breastfeeding was high. Today though, with an increase in availability and access to ART, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of antiretroviral drugs as a safe way to prevent postnatal transmission of HIV through breastfeeding. 

Still, Martin has found that mothers talk about their fears of transmitting HIV to their infants the same way they did two decades ago. Mothers often use unfounded strategies like breastfeeding for shorter durations, breastfeeding less often or offering other liquids in an effort to limit the risk of transmission. So, Martin and her team have counseled mothers not to cut feedings short. Martin shares that her most recent Lactation Counselor Training has offered new insight.

“I’m going to change things in our counseling materials based on what we learned in the CLC training [in regard to] how we phrase things about breastfeeding for longer periods of time; if there is efficient milk transfer, we don’t need to focus on this longer length of time,” she explains.   

Additionally, in an effort to reduce caregivers offering infants under six months food or drink other than breastmilk, alternative soothing recommendations were offered. Martin remembers one mother who tried the suggestions to calm her crying baby. The mother reported that propping her infant onto a specific shoulder alleviated the baby’s discontent. “I don’t know what it was about that shoulder, but she stopped crying,” Martin quotes the mother, noting the importance of empowering mothers and caregivers through counseling. 

In Tanzania, Martin and partners at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College sought to identify  facilitators and barriers to exclusive breastfeeding among women working in the informal sector. And in Kenya, Martin and colleagues have worked to improve adolescent nutrition in informal settlements.

Martin pictured with colleagues from Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College and Better Health for the African Mother and Child organization

Throughout all of her work in East and Southern Africa, Martin says they are reliant on community health workers to roll out their programs. 

“It’s so important to understand their experiences,” Martin says of hearing out the helpers. 

Through her research , Martin has explored the experiences of peer educators, community health workers, WIC breastfeeding peer counselors, health care providers, and program implementers.

Surveying global health professionals provides an opportunity to learn from their experiences and fill gaps in the peer-reviewed literature to strengthen intervention design and implementation as concluded in Martin, et al’s Experiences Engaging Family Members in Maternal, Child, and Adolescent Nutrition: A Survey of Global Health Professionals

Through Facilitators and Barriers to Providing Breastfeeding and Lactation Support to Families in Appalachia: A Mixed-Methods Study With Lactation Professionals and Supporters, Martin draws parallels in the challenges lactation care providers in Africa and Appalachia face, including compensation and availability of services. 

Specifically in Appalachia, the authors heard lactation care providers expressing the desire for additional training for providing support around mental health, chest feeding, drug use, etc. 

Martin says that she found the Lactation Counselor Training Course (LCTC) covered many of these topics. 

“[The course] seemed very intentional in all of the right ways,” she says. 

The Appalachian Breastfeeding Network (ABN) also offers an Advanced Current Concepts in Lactation Course which covers these desired topics with scholarship opportunities. 

When asked if she’s optimistic about the future of maternal child health, Martin answers with a slightly tense laugh: “I feel like I have to say yes.” Martin goes on to explain the inspiring work of ABN and all of the lactation care providers she’s interacted with.

“If they were in charge of the world, it would be such a better place,” she begins. 

“When I think about them, I feel optimistic. I’d like to see different laws that are supportive of women’s health and families. We have all the right people to make positive changes.”

Field of lactation gains child psychologist

The field of lactation just gained another amazing care provider. Kenya Malcolm, PhD, CLC is a child psychologist, consultant, and trainer in Rochester, New York. Dr. Malcolm’s work focuses on programs and interventions in early childhood in mental health settings, preschools and pediatric offices. Among her many responsibilities, Dr. Malcolm is the HealthySteps program coordinator at a large pediatric practice.

Dr. Malcolm says, “The research is pretty clear that working with caregivers early to support children is the best way to promote optimal family and child health. So, that’s what I do!”

In fun, Dr. Malcolm is not only passionate about mental health, but she’s a self-described stationery nerd.

“I think that color coding is a great way to take notes and stay organized but I’ve been mocked for my pen collection!” she begins. When her LCTC instructor Dr. Anna Blair recommended using multiple ink colors on the Lactation Assessment & Comprehensive Intervention Tool (LAT), Dr. Malcolm says she felt validated.

She was again validated during the first few sessions of the course while learning about the benefits of breast/chest feeding not only for the baby but for lactating people.

“That’s when I knew I’d made the right decision to sign up for the course,” she reflects.

Because Dr. Malcolm is new to lactation counseling, she says that “every successful chest feeding story is my favorite right now.”

Photo by Luiza Braun

“All the moms have been so happy that they’re successful!” she explains. “I was not supported in breastfeeding my own kids when they were born and honestly, being a CLC is like an opportunity to be the superhero I wish I had 20 years ago.”

In becoming that superhero, Dr. Malcolm subscribes to reflective practice as a guiding principle in her work, and more specifically, in her leadership roles.

Dr. Malcolm remembers the words of one of the founding members of ZERO to THREE Jeree H. Pawl: “How you are is as important as what you do.”

Here’s more of what Dr. Malcolm had to say:

“Reflective supervision is a special kind of supervision that focuses on the practitioner’s own thoughts, feelings, and behaviors to support their ability to provide good care to the folks they are working with. Working with caregivers and children is tough work and usually includes navigating systems that are very siloed with rigid expectations. As humans, we often respond in ways that are just as much about ourselves as about the family in front of us. Reflective supervision is a necessary space for slowing down and looking at our actions to improve care, reduce bias and disparities, and improve the well-being of everyone involved. Reflective capacity is a skill and reflective supervision is considered a necessary component of support for people who are working with young children and families by most major organizations working toward the health of families.”

In Dr. Malcolm’s side gig with The Society for The Protection and Care of Children, participants introduce themselves with their baby pictures “as a way to hold in mine our own younger selves who continue to show up in our work.” The work focuses on training staff in Infant Mental Health (IMH) principles, Reflective Supervision, and infant/early childhood mental health conceptualization and diagnosis using the DC0-3 across New York state.

“One IMH principle is that we always hold the baby in mind,” Dr. Malcolm begins. “But it’s not just the baby in front of us. We also have to be aware of the baby whose needs are still present in our own selves. That’s why reflective spaces are so important. Our own biases and histories are present in all of our current interactions–another IMH tenant is that our early experiences matter– and we want to be mindful of how those are showing up in our work in both helpful and not so helpful ways.”

Dr. Malcolm tackles another big idea. Responding to an article on moral injury she wrote on social media, “I… think there’s a savior fantasy that many health professionals have that is sometimes traumatic to lose while in the field.” This phenomenon often rings true for lactation care providers. Dr. Malcolm advises doing the self- work it takes for true humility and reflection.

She shares this anecdote:

Source: United States Breastfeeding Committee (USBC)

“I was observing a lactation counseling visit last week and a mom came in with questions about a possible tongue tie and some nipple pain with feeding. Since the latch was poor, the LC provided some strategies for improving latch that helped to address some of the pain. Like, mom agreed that there was less pain with position changes. But mom was not actually interested in working on latch; she was focused on the possibility of the tongue tie. The LC did a great job of talking through her observations and assessment and providing next-step ideas to Mom. But the LC and I really wanted mom to want to improve her latch. It would be easy to feel like that was an unsuccessful visit because we didn’t save the day in the way we wanted. But mom left feeling heard and supported. Many of us go into human services work to be a hero (I actually used the words “being a superhero” two answers ago!! I’m tempted to change that answer now, but I’m not going to.) of our own design. Families don’t need that. They need support to be at their own best.”

You can connect with Dr. Malcolm here.