Music in perinatal care and education

Her arms rested over the edge of the birthing tub, her laboring body buoyant in the water. Breathing through a contraction, her eyebrows furrowed slightly. Warm, dim light hummed throughout the room. A midwife, an assistant, her partner, and I floated through the suite offering her encouragement and support as she worked to bring her baby earthside. 

Photo by Rebekah Vos on Unsplash

Another wave of intensity swelled throughout her body. The “rhythmic sound of blood coursing through the uterine artery” was her baby’s surround sound. Simultaneously, the escalation of energetic strings on her playlist interrupted her concentration. She laughed. Something about the sound of this music struck her as funny, and she asked her husband to please advance the playlist. I sometimes think back to this little moment as evidence of how powerful music can be.

Then as her labor progressed, she produced her own music, a sound deep within that reverberated through the room, the vibrations of an ancient song.  

Elena Mannes, author of The Power of Music, has shown that “music stimulates more parts of the brain than any other human function.” 

Music can be used as a relatively low-cost, low-intervention tool in perinatal care. Though its use may seem innocuous, as with any tool, it should be used intentionally.  

 

Early on 

Photo by Greta Hoffman

Mannes points out that the “human relationship to sound starts early… The fetus begins to develop an auditory system between seventeen and nineteen weeks. Already, we are in a world of sound, of breath and heartbeat, of rhythm and vibration.”

She also highlights Dr. Sheila Woodward’s work which looked at the transmission of music into the human uterus and the human fetus and newborn response to music and found that a “fetus responds to a music stimulus from at least the 32nd week of gestation; and that the neonate alters the normal sucking pattern to activate longer periods of a music stimulus which has been repeatedly presented during the intrauterine stage and shorter periods of a novel music stimulus.”

Healthy Children Project’s Karin Cadwell shares a fond memory:  “I learned to play the guitar when pregnant with one kid. I wouldn’t exactly call what I was doing ‘music’ but it was probably rhythmic against my belly. She was only a few days old and I was mixing bread with a dough hook in my mixer and she was pushing her legs up and down exactly to the beat!” 

What’s more, the authors of Prenatal Music Exposure Induces Long-Term Neural Effects conclude that “prenatal exposure to music can have long-term plastic effects on the developing brain and enhance neural responsiveness to the sounds used in the prenatal training…Furthermore, we found that these plastic changes are long lasting, as the effect of prenatal exposure persists for at least four months without any additional stimulation.”

The authors declare some practical implications:  “… since the prenatal auditory environment modulates the neural responsiveness of fetuses, it seems plausible that the adverse prenatal sound environment may also have long-lasting detrimental effects. 

Such environments may be, for example, noisy workplaces and, in case of preterm infants, neonatal intensive care units. 

Furthermore, as prenatal exposure still affected the [event-related potentials (ERPs)] responses months after birth, additional fetal exposure to structured sound environments might be beneficial for supporting the auditory processing of, for example, infants at risk for dyslexia in whom basic auditory processing was shown to be impaired.”

 

Language learning 

Photo by Mălina Sîrbu

A more recent study looked at the language learning implications of prenatal music exposure. Sonia Arenillas-Alcón, et al conclude that their “findings support the idea that daily musical exposure during the last trimester of pregnancy is associated with enhanced encoding of low-frequency sound components, such as those typical of the fundamental frequency of human speech, that relate to pitch perception.” 

Matthew J. Traxler writes about prosodic (the rhythm and intonation of language)  features of language learning in Introduction to Psycholinguistics: Understanding Language Science. “Infants … appear to be endowed with perceptual and representational skills that enable them to tell the difference between different speech sounds from the moment they are born (or at most, within the first 24-48 hours),” Traxler writes. 

 

Music in therapy 

There’s compelling evidence that shows the importance of music as a therapeutic tool, like during labor and in other environments like the NICU.

Photo by Raul Angel on Unsplash

Marissa Rivera Bolaños recounts her experience with the didgeridoo during labor on the Womb Revolution blog: “…It resonates through your body as a non-touch massage…. During the birth, I just remember the sound was very grounding…. My husband played it directly into my belly while I circled my hips and sang my birth song. I felt like the vibrations were helping soften every cell of my body.” 

Andrea M. Cevasco , PhD, MT-BC, NICU-MT quotes a mother in The Effects of Mothers’ Singing on Full-term and Preterm Infants and Maternal Emotional Responses who said that knowing her infant listened to her singing helped her to cope with the baby’s stay in the NICU.

Jayamala AK, et al notes that their study results “suggest that music therapy has a positive effect in reducing stress in mothers of hospitalized premature neonates thereby increasing the amount of expressed breast milk. A relative increase in the amount of breast milk expressed is a boon to the premature baby for its growth and development as it requires additional nutrition. Music therapy being a non invasive method; can easily be used clinically as a method to increase breast milk secretion.” 

And the results of Caine’s work suggest that “music stimulation may have significantly reduced initial weight loss, increased daily average weight, increased formula and caloric intake, significantly reduced length of the NBICU and total hospital stays, and significantly reduced the daily group mean of stress behaviors for the experimental group.”

MUSIC AND HEALTH CARE: A Paper Commissioned by the Musical Connections Program of Carnegie Hall’s Weill Music Institute by Lea Wolf, MSW and Dr. Thomas Wolf details how music enjoyed by patients can reduce staff stress too.  (p .13)  

Annie Jameson plays alchemy crystal singing bowls which produce resonance and help people de-stress, release anxiety and relax deeply, she says. Her music can be used alongside most therapies to induce tranquility, she adds. 

“Because the brain of each individual patient has absorbed musical building blocks of his or her local sonic environment in infancy and developed expectations and preferences based on this experience, choosing appropriate musical selections is an important challenge,” Wolf and Wolf write. 

This is particularly evident in the anecdote I share up top as I sat alongside my laboring friend. The same sounds conjured comedy in her brain, whereas I was unaffected. 

The authors go on to offer a strategy for music choice in health care. 

Music in perinatal education and normalization 

Song can serve as a way to share stories and lessons and influence popular culture. 

If you’ve completed the Lactation Counselor Training Course (LCTC), you’ll be familiar with the jaunty  When you counsel tune which serves as a reminder to honor the mother as the expert of her baby(ies) and the agent of her decision-making. It  goes to the tune of Frère Jacques:

When you counsel
When you counsel 
Never judge 
Never judge 
Praise mother and baby 
Praise mother and baby 
Don’t command 
Do suggest 

If you’ve never heard T’Amentanefer Lumukanda Camara (TaNefer)’s viral “Teach Me How to Breastfeed” video, you’ll want to drop everything else to acquaint yourself. 

Equally entertaining is Sparrow Folk’s Ruin Your Day song, commentary on breastfeeding in public. 

On our Weird Findings installation, we shared a beautiful video from the Pokot community in Kenya which uses song to deliver a PSA about infant feeding. 

Finally, we prefer this version of Dua Lipa’s original: I’m Lac-a-tating.

Celebrating Pride

This summer, we are revisiting some of our previous publications as they relate to various national celebrations.  June is Pride Month, so this week we are elevating Glenis Decuir’s beautiful story about co-breastfeeding with her wife for  two-and-a-half years. This piece was originally published in 2022.

——

The lactation care provider glanced at her breasts and claimed, “You’re not going to be able to produce much milk.” Glenis Decuir, CBS, a young mother at the time, had just given birth to her first baby (now 17 years old), and while she intended to breastfeed her daughter, without explanation, without proper consultation and counseling, without a shred of compassion, the lactation consultant disparaged her intentions so tragically that Decuir not only did not breastfeed her daughter, she remained discouraged through the birth of her second child (now 14 years old) and did not breastfeed him either.

Decuir eventually learned that she has Insufficient Glandular Tissue (IGT) disorder.

“I knew my breasts looked different, but my mom’s looked the same as mine; I didn’t think anything was abnormal,” Decuir explains. “ I was young and wasn’t resourceful; no one explained anything.”

Though Decuir’s introduction to infant feeding was shrouded in the unknown and total neglect from care providers, her story takes a turn, epitomizing self-determination, advocacy and education, perseverance, resilience and empowerment.

In 2018, Decuir’s wife became pregnant with their third child. Because she would not grow and birth this baby, Decuir wondered how she would form a bond with him.

“It was very difficult for me to wrap my head around that,” Decuir shares.

Plunging into self-guided research, Decuir landed on the potential to induce lactation.

When she decided to embark on this path, Decuir reached out for guidance, but found herself in a void.

“Unfortunately, I received the most pushback from doctors, many of whom didn’t even know that inducing lactation was possible,” Decuir documents her road to co-breastfeeding. “I had to see four different doctors before I could find one willing to work with me. Being under the doctor’s care was very important because I had never done this before, and I knew I would be taking medications. After exploring several options, we chose the Newman Goldfarb Protocol as our method of induced lactation.”

For well over 20 weeks, Decuir delved into the protocol.

“Because I had really poor experiences with my first two and poor experiences with seeking help with breastfeeding professionals… I became an advocate… I had overcome so much adversity,” Decuir begins.

Laws state that we can pump anywhere, Decuir continues. And that’s what she did.

“I was pumping in every location imaginable! At my desk, in the car, the movie theater, Six Flags, and much more!” she writes.

Decuir goes on, “I decided to be very public about my entire journey on Instagram. One, I have the right to and I exercise every right, but it also opened a gateway to educating others.”

Prior to inducing lactation, Decuir reports that her children had never been exposed to anyone breastfeeding, “not even at a playground or anything,” she elucidates.

“This is how behind closed doors moms are with breastfeeding,” she says.

But Decuir and her wife’s approach is different; they are open-books with their children, she explains.

“They were old enough to understand scientifically, biologically, physically what my body was going to go through,” Decuir starts. “I educated them through a scientific standpoint, but also talked about normalizing breastfeeding. We talked about my daughter breastfeeding in the future, and my son and his role as a man in a household and how he can support his future wife to breastfeed.”

Decuir recalls the emotional and practical support her older children offered: “I cried in front of them, I pumped in front of them, I laughed in front of them; they helped wash bottles and Spectra parts…”

In sharing her journey with others though, Decuir wasn’t always met with such maturity and acceptance.

“I got everything under the sun,” Decuir remembers. Some told her it was disgusting, some found it weird, and some even went as far as to claim it child abuse.

Orion was born on September 2, 2018. At the time of his birth, Decuir was producing 16 ounces a day– quite close to what is considered full production– and had stored over 1,000 of her milk in a deep freezer.

Decuir says that she didn’t set forth focusing on the quantity though. “I wasn’t thinking about achieving full supply; I was thinking about producing anything. Even if it was only five ounces a day, I thought, I can at least do one feeding a day and that to me was worth it on its own.”

She continues: “Every time that I would latch Orion on, I just thanked Mother Nature and how amazing our bodies are. Maybe if I had birthed Orion, if I  had just latched him on, it wouldn’t have been a second thought, but because of what I went through–I worked real, real hard– every time I was able to latch my son, I literally thanked the universe. I was so grateful.”

Decuir and her wife went on to co-breastfeed Orion until he was two-and-a-half.

Throughout her breastfeeding relationship, Decuir remained visible in her efforts. “Having the power to go through that experience breastfeeding anywhere and everywhere in public, it became almost liberating and very freeing to be able to exercise my right, and in doing so I came across a lot of people. I took them as opportunities to talk more about breastfeeding and breastfeeding in public.”

At the start of her journey, in order to create her village, Decuir started a private Facebook support group. Today it has over two and a half thousand members.

Locally, Decuir serves as a breastfeeding support person through ZipMilk and is a ROSE Community Transformer, all on a volunteer basis. She has presented at the ROSE Summit in years’ past and is currently working on a book.

You can read Decuir’s former publications about her co-breastfeeding journey here and here .

More for Pride Month 

It’s Pride Month! Working to close the gaps in LGBTQ+ Care

Skin to skin image goes viral

Exploring language among gender nonconforming individuals and nontraditional partners

On Becoming Transliterate: An Interview with Diana West, BA, IBCLC

Jess Fedenia’s, CLC light bulb moment: “Life is full of ands instead of either ors.”

[Photo by Andrea Piacquadio]
We consider ourselves life-long learners here at Healthy Children Project. Sometimes learning occurs gradually, and sometimes there are the ‘light bulb’ moments.

We put a call out to our followers to share “Aha!” moments with us. Maybe it was a myth busted during the Lactation Counselor Training Course (LCTC) or maybe it happened during a visit with a dyad.

We also called for stories about your babies’ and children’s ‘light bulb’ moments. When have you seen your little ones’ faces light up in discovery and understanding?

The call for stories is still open! Please send your reflections to info@ourmilkyway.org with “Light Bulb” in the subject line.


This is my light bulb moment.


That funny little mind blown emoji has peppered many of my interactions. I find it perfectly depicts my reactions to and revelations from the massive matrix of varying perceptions of reality that the internet has offered us. Before emojis were a staple in my vernacular though, I remember a light bulb moment that illuminated something in and around me and helped shape my perception of reality and identity.  

In Chantal Molnar’s 2013 piece Breastfeeding and Feminism she writes:

“Breastfeeding refutes the cultural bent that breast’s primary function is as sex objects. America has an uneasy relationship with breastfeeding and has a hard time facing the duality inherent in breast’s function. Sex versus nurture, or sex and nurture? We don’t seem to have any problem with the duality of our mouths, which can be for sex and for eating. We do not make people cover their heads with a blanket when they are eating in public simply because the mouth is frequently used sexually.”

When I first read this, my daughter was two and breastfeeding, and I was pregnant with my second daughter. Though I wanted to embrace an attitude that I had no qualms about breastfeeding in public, I was always truly a bit uneasy about the threat of being harrassed for doing so. But Molnar’s piece gave me the brilliant analogy I needed to defend myself in the case that I was approached by some dismayed onlooker (which never actually happened in all the years I breastfed three children.) 

That handful of sentences also ignited a recognition of the multi-dimension within me. Interestingly, while Molnar pinpoints American culture’s fixation on the sexual breast, I had a self-perception confined to “Milk Maker”. Though I felt the power of this identity and an appreciation of the magic of its intricate, complex and beautiful function, I failed to see myself as sexy after becoming a mother. Molnar’s words invited me to reconsider how I viewed myself. 

Maybe most importantly, I like to think that this recognition of the multiplicity within myself  has helped me to be more aware and accepting of the diversity and complexities outside of myself. Molnar’s piece revealed to me that life is full of ands instead of either ors.   



Wives co-breastfeed son for two-and-a-half years

The lactation care provider glanced at her breasts and claimed, “You’re not going to be able to produce much milk.” Glenis Decuir, CBS, a young mother at the time, had just given birth to her first baby (now 17 years old), and while she intended to breastfeed her daughter, without explanation, without proper consultation and counseling, without a shred of compassion, the lactation consultant disparaged her intentions so tragically that Decuir not only did not breastfeed her daughter, she remained discouraged through the birth of her second child (now 14 years old) and did not breastfeed him either.

Decuir eventually learned that she has Insufficient Glandular Tissue (IGT) disorder.

“I knew my breasts looked different, but my mom’s looked the same as mine; I didn’t think anything was abnormal,” Decuir explains. “ I was young and wasn’t resourceful; no one explained anything.”

Though Decuir’s introduction to infant feeding was shrouded in the unknown and total neglect from care providers, her story takes a turn, epitomizing self-determination, advocacy and education, perseverance, resilience and empowerment.

In 2018, Decuir’s wife became pregnant with their third child. Because she would not grow and birth this baby, Decuir wondered how she would form a bond with him.

“It was very difficult for me to wrap my head around that,” Decuir shares.

Plunging into self-guided research, Decuir landed on the potential to induce lactation.

When she decided to embark on this path, Decuir reached out for guidance, but found herself in a void.

“Unfortunately, I received the most pushback from doctors, many of whom didn’t even know that inducing lactation was possible,” Decuir documents her road to co-breastfeeding. “I had to see four different doctors before I could find one willing to work with me. Being under the doctor’s care was very important because I had never done this before, and I knew I would be taking medications. After exploring several options, we chose the Newman Goldfarb Protocol as our method of induced lactation.”

For well over 20 weeks, Decuir delved into the protocol.

“Because I had really poor experiences with my first two and poor experiences with seeking help with breastfeeding professionals… I became an advocate… I had overcome so much adversity,” Decuir begins.

Laws state that we can pump anywhere, Decuir continues. And that’s what she did.

“I was pumping in every location imaginable! At my desk, in the car, the movie theater, Six Flags, and much more!” she writes.

Decuir goes on, “I decided to be very public about my entire journey on Instagram. One, I have the right to and I exercise every right, but it also opened a gateway to educating others.”

Prior to inducing lactation, Decuir reports that her children had never been exposed to anyone breastfeeding, “not even at a playground or anything,” she elucidates.

“This is how behind closed doors moms are with breastfeeding,” she says.

But Decuir and her wife’s approach is different; they are open-books with their children, she explains.

“They were old enough to understand scientifically, biologically, physically what my body was going to go through,” Decuir starts. “I educated them through a scientific standpoint, but also talked about normalizing breastfeeding. We talked about my daughter breastfeeding in the future, and my son and his role as a man in a household and how he can support his future wife to breastfeed.”

Decuir recalls the emotional and practical support her older children offered: “I cried in front of them, I pumped in front of them, I laughed in front of them; they helped wash bottles and Spectra parts…”

In sharing her journey with others though, Decuir wasn’t always met with such maturity and acceptance.

“I got everything under the sun,” Decuir remembers. Some told her it was disgusting, some found it weird, and some even went as far as to claim it child abuse.

Orion was born on September 2, 2018. At the time of his birth, Decuir was producing 16 ounces a day– quite close to what is considered full production– and had stored over 1,000 of her milk in a deep freezer.

Decuir says that she didn’t set forth focusing on the quantity though. “I wasn’t thinking about achieving full supply; I was thinking about producing anything. Even if it was only five ounces a day, I thought, I can at least do one feeding a day and that to me was worth it on its own.”

She continues: “Every time that I would latch Orion on, I just thanked Mother Nature and how amazing our bodies are. Maybe if I had birthed Orion, if I  had just latched him on, it wouldn’t have been a second thought, but because of what I went through–I worked real, real hard– every time I was able to latch my son, I literally thanked the universe. I was so grateful.”

Decuir and her wife went on to co-breastfeed Orion until he was two-and-a-half.

Throughout her breastfeeding relationship, Decuir remained visible in her efforts. “Having the power to go through that experience breastfeeding anywhere and everywhere in public, it became almost liberating and very freeing to be able to exercise my right, and in doing so I came across a lot of people. I took them as opportunities to talk more about breastfeeding and breastfeeding in public.”

At the start of her journey, in order to create her village, Decuir started a private Facebook support group. Today it has over two and a half thousand members.

Locally, Decuir serves as a breastfeeding support person through ZipMilk and is a ROSE Community Transformer, all on a volunteer basis. She has presented at the ROSE Summit in years’ past and is currently working on a book.

You can read Decuir’s former publications about her co-breastfeeding journey at https://aeroflowbreastpumps.com/blog/the-road-to-co-breastfeeding

https://www.baby-chick.com/what-is-co-breastfeeding/ and

https://www.huffpost.com/entry/co-breastfeeding_n_5c13eaf8e4b049efa75213e6.